By John E. Lesch
Within the decade from 1935-1945, whereas the second one global struggle raged in Europe, a brand new category of medications able to controlling bacterial infections introduced a healing revolution that keeps at the present time. the recent medications weren't penicillin and antibiotics, yet sulfonamides, or sulfa medications. The sulfa medicines preceded penicillin by means of virtually a decade, and through global conflict II they carried the most healing burden in either army and civilian drugs. Their luck encouraged a quick growth of analysis and construction within the overseas pharmaceutical undefined, raised expectancies of medication, and speeded up the looks of latest and robust medications according to examine. The latter improvement created new regulatory dilemmas and unanticipated healing difficulties. The sulfa medications additionally proved terribly fruitful as beginning issues for brand new medicines or sessions of substances, either for bacterial infections and for a few vital non-infectious ailments. This booklet examines this leap forward in medication, pharmacy, and technological know-how in 3 components. half I indicates that an business examine surroundings was once the most important to the luck of the revolution in therapeutics that emerged from medicinal chemistry. half II indicates how nationwide adjustments formed the reception of the sulfa medicinal drugs in Germany, France, Britain, and the us. the writer makes use of press assurance of the day to discover well known perceptions of the dramatic adjustments occurring in drugs. half III records the impression of the sulfa medicines at the American attempt in international warfare II. It additionally exhibits how researchers got here to an figuring out of ways the sulfa medicinal drugs labored, including a brand new theoretical measurement to the technology of pharmacology and even as supplying a foundation for the invention of recent medicines within the Nineteen Forties, Fifties, and Sixties. A concluding bankruptcy summarizes the remodeling effect of the sulfa medicines on twentieth-century drugs, tracing the healing revolution from the preliminary leap forward within the Thirties to the present look for potent remedies for AIDS and the hot horizons unfolded via the human genome venture and stem phone study.
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Extra info for The First Miracle Drugs: How the Sulfa Drugs Transformed Medicine
3. Portrait of Patricia Garvan. Her death from rheumatic fever helped motivate her father, Francis P. Garvan, to found the Chemical Foundation to promote the expansion of the American chemical industry. Frontispiece to Chemistry in Medicine: A Cooperative Treatise Intended to Give Examples of Progress Made in Medicine with the Aid of Chemistry (New York: Chemical Foundation, 1928). 40 By early 1925, Hugh Young had met with Garvan on several occasions, describing the Brady Institute’s work on antiseptics and warmly praising the Chemical Foundation’s efforts on behalf of American chemistry and pharmacology.
27 To satisfy the ﬁrst criterion, the researchers decided to seek a penetrating dye. ” Citing both clinical Beginnings 23 experience and chemical reasoning indicating that basic dyes were more irritating to tissues than acid ones, Young and associates narrowed their search to acid dyes. Among these, eosin was attractive because of its use as a cytoplasmic stain. Chemical scrutiny, however, revealed that the sites on the molecule where substitution might occur were already occupied by bromine. 28 As the “active germicidal principle to be substituted in the dye molecule,” Young and his collaborators chose mercury.
56 Recognizing that development of effective chemotherapeutic agents required a combination of low toxicity with therapeutic action, Walker and Sweeney conducted a separate set of trials in which healthy mice received intraperitoneal injections of the same mercuribenzene derivatives. 57 Walker and Sweeney concluded that two chemical factors were principally involved in the action of organic mercurial compounds on staphylococcal infections. One of these was the bactericidal mercury group, or toxophore; the other, the therapeutic-action–enhancing or chemophore groups in other positions in the benzene ring.
The First Miracle Drugs: How the Sulfa Drugs Transformed Medicine by John E. Lesch