By Martin Henig
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Based as a backlash opposed to summary expressionism, minimalism was once characterised by means of simplified, stripped-down types and fabrics used to precise rules in a right away and impersonal demeanour. via featuring items as basic items, minimum artists sought to speak with no pertaining to expressive or historic topics.
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ARCHITECTURE 52 when Vitruvius wrote have a knowledge of geometry, history, philosophy, music, medicine, law and astronomy, this was not some fanciful aspiration to recruit academic polymaths to the profession, but was for sound practical reasons; knowledge of medicine was desirable if buildings were not to be sited in unhealthy places; knowledge of astronomy was necessary for the construction of sundials which told the right time. Vitruvius was very keen to lay clown rules, and it must be emphasized that many of them were not universally acknowledged, even at the time and place of his writing.
32). Classical Doric had been the basis for the type of column used in Etruscan architecture. The Roman version of Doric differed in having a smaller capital with a more elaborate profile; a short necking and a bead-moulding separating the capital from the shaft; a more slender shaft without fluting; and a moulded base. Renaissance architects named this version the Tuscan column; it was most commonly used for the smaller-scale architecture of domestic peristyles, verandahs and porches. One further distinctive feature of the Roman treatment of the classical Orders was the use of engaged columns on a facade in a manner which was not structural, but decorative.
The Temple of Asklepios Soter at Pergamum, dated to just before the middle of the second century, was built in apparent imitation of the Pantheon, but with a drum of ashlar masonry and a dome of radially-laid bricks Of Italy, (111. 37). main forms of monumental masonry in Republican polygonal and ashlar, the former fell out of use during the first the two century BC. Among the latest instances are the lower terraces of the Sanctuary of Fortuna at Praeneste, and the walls of Fiesole near Florence, dated to about 100 BC.
A Handbook of Roman art : a comprehensive survey of all the arts of the Roman world by Martin Henig